New York is a state in the United States of America, and its most populous city is New York City (NYC). Manhattan is the cultural, administrative, and financial center of NYC, and it is home to the headquarters of many major multinational corporations, the United Nations, Wall Street, and several major universities. The engineering challenges posed by the state's complex terrain and the unique infrastructure problems of NYC caused by urban overcrowding have had to be overcome on a permanent basis. The Gaelic games are played in Riverdale, Bronx, in Gaelic Park, headquarters of the New York GAA, the only North American team that competes at a senior level between counties.
Unlike the urban landscape of NYC, the vast majority of the state's geographical area is dominated by meadows, forests, rivers, farms, mountains, and lakes. Environmental problems in New York City are affected by its size, density, abundant public transportation infrastructure, and location at the mouth of the Hudson River. NYC's iconic subway system is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by stations in operation (472) and by route length. New York has one of the most extensive and oldest transportation infrastructures in the country.
For a century and a half from 1810 to 1962, New York was ranked fourth among American states behind California, Texas, and Florida. The New York Supreme Court also acts as an intermediate appellate court in many cases, while local courts deal with small claims, traffic ticket cases, local zoning issues, and are the starting point for all criminal cases. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) is a joint venture between both states authorized by the United States. NYC was also once the national capital under the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union - America's first national government.
Exceptionally among major American cities, New York is divided politically and is home to branches of two different United States parties. However, rural areas in upstate New York are generally more conservative than cities and tend to favor Republicans. New York is also the third largest grape producing state in America and second largest wine producer by volume after California. In upstate New York, French-Canadians represent the main ethnicity due to its proximity to Quebec.
Hempstead is the most populated city in the state; if it were a city it would be second largest in New York with more than 700,000 inhabitants.